13 October 2017
This is OFF MESSAGE. No Mozilla policy here.
This is my personal blog.
(This is the text from my talk at the Reynolds
Journalism Institute's Revenue Models that
event, with some links added. Not exactly as
Hi. I may be the token advertising optimist here.
Before we write off advertising, I just want
to try to figure out the answer to: why can't
Internet publishers make advertising work as well
as publishers used to be able to make it work when
they were breathing fumes from molten lead all day?
Has the Internet really made something that much
I have bought online advertising, written and edited
for ad-supported sites, had root access to some
of the servers of an adtech firm that you probably
have cookies from right now, and have written an ad
blocker. Now I work for Mozilla. I don't have
any special knowledge on what exactly Mozilla intends
to do about third-party cookies, or fingerprinting,
or ad blocking, but I can share some of what I have
learned about users' values, and some facts about the
browser business that will inform those decision for
Mozilla and other browsers.
First of all, I want to cover how new privacy
tools are breaking web advertising as we know it.
But that's fine. People don't like web advertising
as we know it.
So what don't they like?
A 2009 study at the University of
came up with the result that "most adult Americans
do not want advertisers to tailor advertisements to
When the researchers explained how ad targeting works,
the percentage went up.
We have known for quite a while that people have
norms about how they share their personal information.
That Pennsylvania study isn't the only one. Just
recently a company called Pagefair did a survey on
when people would choose to share their info on the web.
Research result: what percentage will consent to tracking for advertising? | PageFair
They surveyed 300 publishers, adtech people, brands,
and various others, on whether users will consent
to tracking under the GDPR and the ePrivacy
The survey asked if users would allow for tracking on
one site only, and for one brand only, in addition to
“analytics partners”. 79% of respondents said
they would click “No” to this limited consent
And what kind of tracking policy would people prefer
in the browser by default? The European Parliament
suggested that “Accept only first party tracking”
should be the default. But only 20% of respondents
said they would select this. Only 5% were willing
to “accept all tracking”. 56% said they would
select “Reject tracking unless strictly necessary
for services I request”. The very large majority
(81%) of respondents said they would not consent to
having their behaviour tracked by companies other
than the website they are visiting.
Users say that they really don't like being tracked.
So, right about now is where you should be pointing
out that what people say about what they want is
often different from what they do.
It's hard to see exactly what
people do about particular ads, but we can see some
indirect evidence that what people do about creepy
ads is consistent with what they say about privacy.
First, ad blockers didn't catch on until people started to see retargeting.
Second, companies indirectly reveal their user research in
policies and design decisions.
Back in 1998, when Google was still
"google.stanford.edu" I wrote an ad blocker.
And there were a bunch of other pretty good ones
in the late 1990s, too. WebWasher, AdSubtract,
Internet Junkbuster. But none of that stuff caught
on. That was back when most people were on dialup,
and downloading a 468x60 banner ad was a big deal.
That's before browsers came with pop-up blockers,
so a pop-up was a whole new browser window and those
could get annoying real fast.
But users didn't really get into
ad blocking. What changed between then and
Retargeting. People could see that the ad on one
site had "followed them" from a previous site.
That creeped them out.
Some Facebook research clearly led in the same direction.
As we should all know by now, Facebook enables an
extremely fine level of micro-targeting.
Yes, you can target 15 people in Florida.
But how do the users feel about this?
We can't see Facebook's research. But we
can see the result of it, in Facebook Advertising
If you buy an ad on Facebook, you can target people
based on all kinds of personal info, but you can't
reveal that you did it.
Ads must not contain content that asserts or
implies personal attributes. This includes direct
or indirect assertions or implications about a
person’s race, ethnic origin, religion, beliefs,
age, sexual orientation or practices, gender identity,
disability, medical condition (including physical
or mental health), financial status, membership in
a trade union, criminal record, or name.
So you can say "meet singles near you" but you
can't say "other singles". You can offer depression
counseling in an ad, but you can't say "treat your
Facebook is constantly researching and tweaking
their site, and, of course, trying to sell ads.
If personalized targeting didn't creep people the
hell out, then the ad policy wouldn't make you hide
that you were doing it.
All right, so users don't want to be followed around.
Where does Mozilla come in?
Well, Mozilla is supposed to be all about data
privacy for the user. We have these Data Privacy
No surprises Use and share information in a way that is transparent and benefits the user.
User control Develop products and advocate for best practices that put users in control of their data and online experiences.
Limited data Collect what we need, de-identify where we can and delete when no longer necessary.
Sensible settings Design for a thoughtful balance of safety and user experience.
Defense in depth Maintain multi-layered
security controls and practices, many of which are
If you want a look at what Mozilla management
is thinking about the tracking
protection slash ad blocking problem,
there's always Proposed Principles for Content
by Denelle Dixon.
Content Neutrality: Content blocking software
should focus on addressing potential user needs
(such as on performance, security, and privacy)
instead of blocking specific types of content (such
Transparency & Control: The content blocking
software should provide users with transparency and
meaningful controls over the needs it is attempting
Openness: Blocking should maintain a
level playing field and should block under the
same principles regardless of source of the
content. Publishers and other content providers
should be given ways to participate in an open Web
ecosystem, instead of being placed in a permanent
penalty box that closes off the Web to their products
If we have all those great values though, why aren't
we doing more to protect users from tracking?
Here's the problem from the browser point of view.
Firefox had a tracking protection feature in
Firefox had a proposed "Cookie Clearinghouse" that was
going to happen with Stanford, back in 2013. Firefox
developers were talking about third-party cookie
Microsoft beat Mozilla to it. Microsoft Internet Explorer released
Tracking Protection Lists in version 9, in
But the mainstream browsers have always been held
back by two things.
First, browser developers have been cautious about not breaking
sites. We know that users prefer not to be
tracked from site to site, but we know that they
get really mad when a site that used to work just
stops working. There is a lot of code in a lot of
browsers to handle stuff that no self-respecting
web designer has done for decades. Remember
the 1996 movie "Space Jam"? Check out the web
some time. It's a point of pride to keep all that
1996 web design working. And seriously, one of
those old 1996 vintage pages might be the web-based
control panel for somebody's emergency generator, or
something. Yes, browsers consider the users' values
on tracking, but priority one is not breaking stuff.
And that includes third-party resources that are not
creepy ad trackers—stuff like shopping carts and
comment forms and who knows what.
Besides not breaking sites, the other thing that keeps
browsers from implementing users' values on tracking
is that we know people like free stuff. For a long
time, browsers didn't have enough good data,
so have deferred to the adtech business when they
talk about how sites make money. It looks obvious,
right? Sites that release free stuff make money from
ads, ads work a certain way, so if you interfere
with how the ads work, then sites make less money,
and users don't get the free stuff.
Mozilla backed down on third-party cookies in 2013,
and again on tracking protection in 2015.
Microsoft backed down on Tracking Protection Lists.
Both times, after the adtech industry made a big fuss about it.
So what changed? Why is now different?
Well, that's an easy answer, right? Apple put
Intelligent Tracking Prevention into their Safari
browser, and now everybody else has to catch up.
Apple so far is putting
their users ahead of the usual alarmed
from the adtech people. Steven Sinofsky, former
president of the Windows Division at Microsoft,
But that's not all of it.
You're going to see other browsers make moves that
look like they're "following Safari" but really,
browsers are not so much following each other as
making similar decisions based on similar information.
When users share their values they say that they want
control over their information.
When users see advertising that seems "creepy"
we can see them take steps to avoid ads following
Some people say, well, if users really want privacy,
why don't they pay for privacy products? That's not
how humans work. Users don't pay for privacy, because
we don't pay other people to come into compliance with
basic social norms. We don't pay our loud neighbors
to quiet down.
Apple does lots of user research. I believe
they're responding to what their users say.
Apple looks like a magic company that releases
magic things that they make up out of their own
heads. "Designed by Apple in California." This is
a great show. It's part of their brand. I have
a lot of respect for their ability to make things
But that doesn't mean that they just make stuff up.
Apple does a lot of user research. Every so often
we get a little peek behind the curtain when there
is discovery in a lawsuit. They do research on their
own users, on Samsung's users, everybody.
Mozilla has user research, too.
For a long time, browser people thought that there
was a conflict between giving the users something
that complies with their tracking norms and giving
them something that keeps them happy with the sites
they want to use.
But now it turns out that we have some ways that we
could act in accordance with user values that also
produce measurably more satisfied users.
How badly does privacy protection break sites?
Mozilla's testing team has built, deployed to users,
and tested nine different sets of cookie and tracking
Lots of people thought there are going to be things
that break sites and protect users, or leave sites
working and leave users vulnerable.
It turns out that there is a configuration that gives
both better values alignment and less breakage.
Because a lot of that breakage is caused by
We're learning that in a few important areas,
even though Apple Safari is in the lead, Apple's
Intelligent Tracking Prevention doesn't go far enough.
What users want
It turns out that when you do research with people
who are not current users of ad blockers, and
offer them choices of features, the popular choices
are tracking blockers, malvertising protection,
and blocking annoying ads such as auto-play videos.
Among those users who aren't already using an ad
blocker, the offer of an ad blocker wasn't as popular.
Yes, people want to see fewer annoying ads. And
nobody likes malware. But people are also interested
in protection from tracking. Some users even put
tracking protection ahead of malvertising protection.
If you only ask about annoying ad formats you get a
list of which ad formats are popular now but get on
people's nerves. This is where Google is now. I have
no doubt that they'll catch up. Everyone who’s ever
moderated a comment section knows what the terrible
ads are. And any publisher has the motivation to
moderate and impose standards on the ads on their
site. Finding which ads are the crappy ones are
not the problem. The problem is that legit sites
and crappy sites are in the same ad space market,
competing for the same eyeballs. As a legit site,
you have less market power to turn down an ad that
does not meet your policies.
We are coming to an understanding of where users
stand. In a lot of ways we're repeating the early
development of spam filters, but in slow motion.
Today, a spam filter seems like a must-have feature
for any email service. But MSN started talking about
its spam filtering back when Sanford Wallace, the
“Spam King,” was saying stuff like this.
I have to admit that some people hate me,
but I have to tell you something about hate. If
sending an electronic advertisement through email
warrants hate, then my answer to those people is
“Get a life. Don’t hate somebody for sending an
advertisement through email.” There are people out
there that also like us.
According to spammers, spam filtering was just
Internet nerds complaining about something that
regular users actually like. But the spam debate
ended when big online services, starting with MSN,
started talking about how they build for their
real users instead of for Wallace’s hypothetical
If you missed the email spam debate, don’t
worry. Wallace’s talking points about spam filters
constantly get recycled by the IAB and the DMA,
every time a browser makes a move toward tracking
protection. But now it’s not email spam that users
supposedly crave. Today, they tell us that users
really want those ads that follow them around.
So here's the problem. Users are clear about their
values and preferences. Browsers must reflect user values
and preferences. Browsers have enough of a critical mass
of users demanding better protection from tracking
that browsers are going to have to move or become
That's what the email providers did on spam.
There were not enough pro-spam users to support an
email service without a spam filter.
And there may not be enough pro-targeting users to
support a browser without privacy tools.
As I said, I do not know exactly how Mozilla is going
to handle this, but every browser is going to have to.
But I can make one safe prediction.
Browsers need users. Users prefer tracking
protection. I'm going to make a really stupid,
safe prediction here.
User adoption of tracking protection will not affect
the amount of user data available, or affect any
measurement of number of targeted ad impressions
available in any way.
Every missing trackable user will be replaced by an
Every missing piece of user data will be replaced by
an "inferred" piece of data.
How much adfraud is there really?
There are people who will stand up and say that
we have 2 percent fraud, or 85 percent. Of course
it's different from campaign to campaign and some
advertisers get burned worse than others.
You can see "IAS safe traffic" on fraud boards.
Because video views are worth so much more,
the smartest bots go there. We do know that when
you look for adfraud seriously, you can find it.
Just recently the Financial Times found a bunch.
The publisher has
found display ads against inventory masquerading as
FT.com on 10 separate ad exchanges and video ads on
15 exchanges, even though the FT doesn’t even sell
video ads programmatically, with 300 accounts selling
inventory purporting to be the FT’s. The scale of
the fraud uncovered is vast — the equivalent of one
month’s supply of bona fide FT.com video inventory
was fraudulently appearing in a single day.
The FT warns advertisers after discovering high levels of domain spoofing
If you were trying to build an advertising business
to facilitate fraud, you could not do much better
than the current system.
That's because the current web advertising system
is based on tracking users from high-value sites to
low-value sites. Walt Mossberg recounts a dinner
conversation with an advertiser:
[W]e were seated next to the head of this advertising
company, who said to me something like, "Well, I
really always liked AllThingsD and in your first week
I think Recode’s produced some really interesting
stuff." And I said, "Great, so you’re going to
advertise there, right? Or place ads there." And he
said, "Well, let me just tell you the truth. We’re
going to place ads there for a little bit, we’re
going to drop cookies, we’re going to figure out
who your readers are, we’re going to find out what
other websites they go to that are way cheaper than
your website and then we’re gonna pull our ads from
your website and move them there."
The current web advertising system is based
on paying publishers less, charge brands more.
Revenue share for legit publishers is at 30 to 40
according to the Association of National Advertisers.
But all revenue split numbers are wrong because
undetected fraud ends up in the ‘publisher’ share.
When your model is based on data leakage, on catching
valuable eyeballs on cheap sites, the inevitable
overspray is fraud.
People aren't even paying attention to what could be the biggest form of adfraud.
Part of the conventional wisdom on adfraud is that
you can beat it by tracking users all the way to a
sale, and filter the bots out that way. After all,
if they made a bot good enough to actually buy stuff
it wouldn't be a problem for the client.
But the attribution models that connect impressions to
sales are, well, they're hard enough to understand
that most of the people who understand them are
probably fraud hackers.
The dispute betwen Steelhouse and Criteo
settled last year, so we didn't get to see how two
real adtech companies might or might not have been
hacking each other's attribution numbers.
But today we have another chance.
I used to work for Linux Journal, and we followed
the SCO case pretty intently. There was even
a dedicated news site just about the case, called
Groklaw. If there's a case that needs a Groklaw for
web advertising, it's Uber v. Fetch.
Unwanted ads on Breitbart lead to massive click fraud revelations, Uber claims | Ars Technica
This is the closest we have to a tool to help us
understand attribution fraud. When the bad guys
have the ability to make bogus ads claim credit for
real sales, that's a much more powerful motivation
for fraud than just making a bot that looks like
a real user watching a video.
Legit publishers have a real incentive to find and
control adfraud. Adtech intermediaries, not so much.
That's because the core value of ad tech is to find
the big money user at the cheapest possible site. If
you create that kind of industry, you create the
incentive for fraud bots who appear to be members
of a valuable audience. You create incentives to
produce fraudulent sites because all of a sudden,
those kinds of sites have market value that they
would not otherwise have had because of data leakage.
As browsers and sites implement user norms on
tracking, they get fraud protection for free.
So where is the outrage on adfraud?
I thought I could write a script for a heist movie about adfraud.
At first I thought, this is awesome! Computer
hacking, big corporations losing billions of
dollars—should be a formula for an awesome heist
Every heist movie has a bunch of scenes that
introduce the characters, you know, getting the crew
together. Forget it. All the parts of adfraud can be
done independently and connected on the free market.
It's all on a bunch of dumb-looking PHP web boards.
There go a whole bunch of great scenes.
Hard-boiled detectives trying to catch the gang? More
like over easy. The adtech industry "committed
$1.5 million in funding" (and set up a 24-member
committee!) to fight an eleven billion dollar
problem. Adfraud isn't taking candy from a baby,
it's taking candy from a dude whose job is giving
away candy. More fraud means more money for adtech
Dramatic risk of getting caught? Not a chance of going
to prison—the worst that happens is that some of
the characters get their accounts or domains banned,
and they have to make new ones. The adfraud movie's
production designer is going to have to work awful
hard to make that "Access denied" screen look cool
enough to keep the audience awake.
So the movie idea is a no-go, but as people learn
that today's web ads don't just leave the publisher
with 30 percent but also feed fraud, we should see
a flight to quality effect.
The technical decisions that enabled the Lumascape
to rip off Walt Mossberg are the same decisions that
facilitate fraud, are the same decisions that make
users come looking for tracking protection.
I said I was an advertising optimist and here's why.
The tracking protection trend is splitting web advertising.
We have the existing high-tracking, high-fraud market
and a new low-tracking opportunity.
Some users are getting better protected from
The bad news is that it will be harder to serve
those users a lucrative ad enabled by third-party
The good news is that those users can't be tracked
from high-value to low-value sites. Those users
start to become possible to tell apart from fraudbots.
For that subset of users, web advertising starts
to shift from a hacking game to a reputation game.
In order to sell advertising you need to give
the advertiser some credible information on who
the audience is. Most browsers have been bad at
protecting personal information about the user,
so web advertising has become a game where a whole
bunch of companies compete to covertly capture as
much user info as they can.
But some browsers are getting better at implementing
people’s preferences about sharing their
information. The result, for those users, is a
change in the rules of the game. Investment in taking
people’s personal info is becoming less rewarding,
as browsers compete to reflect people’s preferences.
And investments in building sites and brands that are
trustworthy enough for people to want to share their
information will tend to become more rewarding. This
shift naturally leads to complaints from people who
are used to winning the old game, but will probably
be better for customers who want to use trustworthy
brands and for people who want to earn money by making
ad-supported news and cultural works.
There are people building a new web advertising
system around user-permissioned information, and
they've been doing it for a long time. But until now,
nobody really wants to deal with them, because adtech
is just selling that information taken from the user
without permission. Tracking protection will be the
motivation for forward-thinking brand people to catch
the flight to quality and shift web ad spending from
the hacking game to the reputation game.
Now that we have better understanding of how user
norms are aligned with the interests of independent
browsers and with the interests of high-reputation
sites, what's next?
Measure the tracking-protected audience
Legit sites are in a strong position to gather
some important data that will shift web ads from a
hacking game to a reputation game. Let's measure
the tracking-protected audience.
Tracking protection is a powerful sign of a
human audience. A legit site can report a tracking
protection percentage for its audience, and any adtech
intermediary who claims to offer advertisers the same
audience, but delivers a suspiciously low tracking
protection number, is clearly pushing a mismatched
or bot-heavy audience and is going to have a harder
time getting away with it.
Showing prospective advertisers your
tracking protection data lets you reveal the tarnish
on the adtech "Holy Grail"—the promise of high-value
eyeballs on crappy sites.
a reliable way that detects all the major tracking
You can't sell advertising without data on who the
audience is. Much of that data will have to come from
the tracking-protected audience. When quality sites
share tracking protection data with advertisers,
that helps expose the adfraud that intermediaries
have no incentive to track down.
This is an opportunity for service journalism.
Users are already concerned and confused about web
ads. That's an opportunity that some legit sites
such as the Wall Street Journal and The New York
Times are already taking advantage of. The more that
someone learns about how web advertising works, the
more that he or she is motivated to get protected.
But if you don't talk to your readers about tracking protection, who will?
A lot of people are getting caught up today in
publisher-hostile schemes such as adblockers with paid
whitelisting, or adblockers that come with malware
If you don't recommend a publisher-friendly protection
tool or setting, they'll get a bad one from somewhere
I really like ads.
At the airport on the way here
I saw that they just came out with
a hardcover collection of the complete Kurt Vonnegut
A lot of those stories were paid for by Collier’s
ads run in the 1950s, and we're still getting the
positive extenalities from that advertising today.
Advertising done right can be a growth spiral of
growth spiral of economic growth, reputation building,
and creation of cultural works. It’s one of the most
powerful forces to produce news, entertainment goods,
fiction. Let's fix it.